Heute arbeite ich mit …

dem Leica GS18 T GNSS Empfänger:

traumhafte Ergebnisse des Leica GS18 T bei einer Absteckung unter schlechten Bedingungen!!

Aufgabenstellung: Absteckung von 11 Punkten. An sich nicht sehr schwierig, wären da nicht die Sträucher und Bäume, welche eine reine GPS/GNSS Absteckung meiner Meinung nach nicht möglich machten… bis ich den Leica GS18 T GNSS Empfänger getestet habe.

Quelle: http://doris.ooe.gv.at

Bad Ischl im Februar 2017

Aufgabenstellung: Im Projektgebiet liegen 11 Punkte, die mit einer Genauigkeit von +/- 10 cm zum Abstecken waren

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. Das Gelände lässt dem ersten Anschein keine reine GPS/GNSS Messung zu. Also habe ich mir Marcel Fuß von Leica Geosystems Österreich organisiert, der mit mir und dem neuen Leica GNSS Flagschiff – dem GS18 T – die Punkte im Gelände abstecken soll.

Projektvorbereitung: 5 Minuten, die Punkte hatten wir als csv-Datei erhalten und konnten direkt in die Leica Captivate Software importiert werden.

Es wurde im Vorfeld keine örtliche Anpassung gerechnet sondern gleich das GIS-Grid über dem APOS-RTK Korrekturdatendienst verwendet. Für die Kontrolle der Anpassungen waren Kontrollpunkte (Pxx) in einer Genauigkeit von 2-3 cm vorhanden.

Die abzusteckenden Punkte 1-11 lagen, wie im Plan ersichtlich, zwischen Bäumen und Sträucher. Ein Glück dass wir am kältesten Tag des Jahres messen durften, da waren die meisten Laubbäume doch sehr kahl. Die paar Nadelbäume in unserem Gebiet standen jedoch meist genau über unseren Absteckpunkten und so hatte ich anfangs wenig Hoffnung für die reine GPS/GNSS Vermessung. Würden wir die Punkte aufgrund den Umgebungsbedingungen kategorisieren, dann hätte ich persönlich vor der Vermessung folgende Einteilung getroffen:

Punkte 1,2,6,8; P6,P11,P12,P10,P23: mit GPS/GNSS messbar.

Punkte 3,4,7; P13: meiner Meinung nach mit GPS/GNSS kaum messbar.

Punkte 5,9,10,11; P22: meiner Meinung nach mit GPS/GNSS unmöglich messbar.

Absteckplan mit DORIS Luftbild

Quelle: http://doris.ooe.gv.at

Kontrollmessungen mit Hilfe von Passpunkten

Soweit sogut. Nach einem ersten Augenschein konnte mit der Messung gestartet werden. Um ehrlich zu sein, arbeitete ich bei dieser Vermessung sehr wenig, mein treuer Gehilfe Marcel Fuß war sehr fleißig und gehorchte brav meinen Befehlen. 🙂

Wir kontrollierten natürlich zuerst die vorhandenen Passpunkte und schon begeisterte mich der Leica GS18 T: Punkt P22 lag tief verdeckt unter Nadelbäumen, als der GPS/GNSS Stab auf 2m ausgefahren und auch schief gehalten wurde, konnte der RTK-Empfänger eine Initialisierung berechnen und den Punkt auf einige cm genau abstecken.

Die Ergebnisse der abgesteckten Kontrollpunkte habe ich folgend aufgelistet:

 KategorieInfo2D [cm]Höhe [cm]
P6+/- 3.2+ 2.3
P10keine Höhe+/- 1.4-
P13starke Abschattungen durch Bäume+/- 5.0- 4.3
P22kaum freie Sicht +/- 4.9+ 12.2
P21+/- 2.2+ 2.8
P11+/- 0.8- 2.3
P12+/- 2.5- 0.9

Die Absteckung mit dem Leica GS18 T

Nach diesen ersten vielversprechenden Ergebnissen konnen die Absteckung im Gelände beginnen. Bewaffnet mit einem großen Vorschlaghammer und 11 Pflöcken steckte mir mein treuer Helfer mit dem Leica GS18 T die ersten Punkte ab. Punkte 6, 7 und 8 wurden ohne Probleme abgesteckt, ebenso die Punkte 1, 2, 3. Was mich persönlich jedoch etwas verwirrte, war die Haltung des RTK-Empfängers. Gewohnt, jeden Empfänger ins Lot zu richten, war der Anblick des schiefen Stabs doch etwas verwirrend. Durch die Technologie des Leica GS18 T ist eine schiefe Messung ohne Probleme möglich und die Ergebnisse dennoch beeindruckend.

Das zeigte sich auch in den Punkten 4, 5 und 11: Während ich Punkt 4 noch als GPS/GNSS tauglich (wenn auch schwer messbar) gehalten hätte, wollte ich für die Punkte 4 und 5 schon die Totalstation aufbauen. Beide Punkte (in der Bildergalerie gut erkennbar), mussten unmittelbar unter einem Baum abgesteckt werden.

„Niemals, kannst du vergessen unmittelbar unter einem Nadelbaum zu messen“

,waren meine eigenen Worte doch Marcel Fuß überzeugte mich eines besseren. Der Stab stand bei beiden Messungen ca. 20-30° geneigt und die Punkte konnten wunderbar vermessen werden, sogar mit einer Antennenhöhe von lediglich 2 m. Natürlich kann man nun argumentieren, dass durch die Neigung der Horizont verfälscht wird. Aber wenn ich mir so eine zusätzliche Aufstellung einer Totalstation erspare und die Punkte weit innerhalb der Genauigkeit liegen, so ist mir der schiefe Horizont ganz egal.

Beflügelt von den tollen Ergebnissen, vielleicht sogar ein wenig übermütig wagten wir uns an die Punkte P9 und P10.

Absteckung mit dem Leica GS18 T

Der Punkt P9 liegt mitten im kahlen Wald, etwas größere Laubbäume würden im Sommer den gesamten Himmel verdecken. Auch im Winter gibt es genug Möglichkeiten für das GPS/GNSS Signal Mehrwegsignale zu erzeugen: Insgesamt eine Situation, in der ich eine GPS/GNSS Messung für unmöglich gehalten habe.

Mit einer Antennenhöhe von 3 m, der Möglichkeit den GNSS-RTK-Empfänger schief zu halten und etwas Geduld bei der Vermessung, schafften wir es trotz dieser schlechten Empfangssituation eine Initialisierung zu erreichen und den Punkt abzustecken. Da wir selbst nicht ganz überzeugt waren, steckten wir den Punkt dreimal (jeweils mit 5 und 15 Minuten Zeitabstand dazwischen) ab und erreichten erstaunlicherweiße eine Wiederholgenauigkeit von unter 5 cm.

Punkt 10 konnten wir dann wirklich nicht mehr mit dem Leica GS18 T abstecken. Hätte das nun inmitten des sehr dichten Nadelwaldes auch noch funktioniert, hätte ich den RTK-Empfänger wahrscheinlich an Ort und Stelle gekauft.

Endergebnisse und Kontrolle

Um die ganzen abgesteckten Punkte auch zu kontrollieren, hat mein fleißiger Helfer Marcel die Totalstation aufgebaut und die Punkte nochmals mit einer Leica Nova MS60 eingemessen. Stationiert wurde dabei über drei GPS/GNSS Punkte, die zeitgleich mit der Totalstation und dem Leica GS18 T eingemessen wurde (integrierte Vermessung).

Natürlich wurde die Stationierung ebenfalls kontrolliert und einige der Kontrollpunkte Pxx ebenfalls noch einmal abgesteckt.

Alle Ergebnisse der Absteckung sind in der nachfolgenden Tabelle zusammengefasst.

 KategorieInfo2D [cm]Höhe [cm]
P12+/- 3.50.1
P11+/- 6.60.5
1 - 4keine Kontrollegeschätzt < 5 cmgeschätzt < 5 cm
5unterm Nadelbaum, schiefe Messung+/- 3.2+ 4.9
6+/- 1.3- 4.6
7+/- 1.9- 3.3
8+/- 2.3- 5.5
9starke Abschattungen durch Bäume+/- 2.2+10.2
10keine GPS/GNSS Absteckung möglich--
11unterm Nadelbaum, schiefe Messung+/- 1.5- 6.5

Letztendlich muss ich gestehen, dass mich die Performance des Leica GS18 T (und natürlich auch die von Marcel Fuß) total überzeugt hat
. Der RTK-Empfänger misst dort, wo ich mit anderen Empfängern nicht mehr messen könnte, und das sogar noch sehr zuverlässig. Punkte, die ich mit roter Kategorie (meiner Meinung nach nicht messbar) gekennzeichnet hatte, wurden noch zuverlässig gemessen!

Durch die Möglichkeit der schiefen Messungen kann ich auch unter Bäumen, zwischen Sträuchern und auch an Hausecken GPS/GNSS Punkte aufnehmen. In einigen Situationen spare ich mir so die Zeit für das Aufstellen einer Totalstation.

Ich bin vom Leica GS18 T total begeistert

und kann jedem zum Kauf eines solchen RTK-Empfängers nur gratulieren!

An dieser Stelle möchte ich mich nochmals bei Marcel Fuß von Leica Geosystems Österreich für die tolle Mithilfe recht herzlich bedanken!!

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